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States of Matter


States of Matter

  • Solid - Solids have a definite size and shape. Particles are close together, and vibrate.
  • Liquid - Liquids do not have a fixed shape. Particles take the shape of their container. Particles are further apart, and can move freely.
  • Gas - Gases do not have a fixed shape. Particles take the shape of their container. Particles are far apart, and move very freely.

CHANGES OF STATE

Matter

  • Melting - the change of state from solid to liquid
  • Freezing or Solidification - the change of state from liquid to solid
  • Boiling or Evaporation - the change of state from liquid to gas
  • Condensation - the change of state from gas to liquid
  • Sublimation - the change of state directly from gas to solid, and vice versa (e.g. of carbon dioxide gas or carbon dioxide solid 'dry ice')

MELTING AND BOILING POINTS

  • Melting Point - the temperature at which matter changes from solid to liquid, and vice versa (e.g. The melting point of water from ice to liquid water is 0oC.)
  • Boiling Point - the temperature at which matter changes from a liquid to a gas, and vice versa (e.g. The boiling point of water from liquid water to steam is 100oC.)

CHEMICAL
NAME

MELTING
POINT (oC)

BOILING POINT
(oC)

STATE AT ROOM
TEMPERATURE

Helium

-272

-269

gas

Hydrogen

-259

-252

gas

Oxygen

-218

-183

gas

Nitrogen

-210

-195

gas

Ethanol (Alcohol)

-114

79

liquid

Water

0

100

liquid

Common Salt

804

808

solid

Copper

1083

2567

solid

Iron

1535

2750

solid

Tungsten

3410

5660

solid