The method of citing references and compiling bibliographies that is accepted as standard within a school is the Harvard System. A standard Harvard System bibliographic entry consists of, in order:

  1. the author's surname, followed by the initials of his/her given name/s, followed by a full stop
  2. the year of publication of the item that is being listed, followed by a full stop
  3. the title of the item that is being listed, underlined and followed by a full stop
  4. the place of publication followed by a semi-colon
  5. the name of the publisher followed by a full stop.

Note that all words in the titles of journals and newspapers are capitalised. Also note that the second lines of entries are indented 3 spaces.

Some examples of bibliographic entries are:

  • A book

Andrews, P. 1997. A Guide to Photography. Ringwood, Vic;

  • An article from a journal / magasine / periodical

Hamder, W.N. 1994. Blue-Water Plankton.
National Geographic. 146 (issue3), 530-545

  • A newspaper article that does not have an author's name

Anon. 1996. Whale Freed From Beach.
The Courier Mail. 23 February, p.3.

  • A newspaper article that does have an author

Bending, Christine. 2000. More Koalas For Japan.
The Sunday Mail. 3 August, p.6


There are no definite standards for writing bibliographies from the Internet. The following guidelines are recommended to be included:

  1. author's full name as shown on Web page (if present)
  2. publisher (if known)
  3. the date that you accessed the information
  4. full title
  5. the date the Web page was last updated
  6. URL (Universal Reference Location) or the Internet address of the page

An example is:

  • 1999,